Turkish Journal of Earth SciencesPalaeoenvironmental Investigation of Sapropelic Sediments from the Marmara Sea: A Biostratigraphic Approach to Palaeoceanographic History During the Last Glacial-Holocene
1 İstanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Vefa, TR-34470 İstanbul, Turkey
2 İstanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geology, Avcılar, TR-34850 İstanbul, Turkey
3 Munich Ludwig-Maximilians University, Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Richard-Wagner Str. 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany
4 Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture,
Department of Geology, TR-32260 Isparta, Turkey
5 Çukurova University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture,
Department of Geology, Balcalı, TR-01330 Adana, Turkey
Abstract: High-resolution micropalaeontological examination of two cores recovered from the Central Basin of the Marmara Sea distinguishes seven biostratigraphical zones within pre-sapropelic (Pr1 & 2 zones), sapropelic (Sap1 & 2 zones) and post-sapropelic (Po1-2-3 zones) sediments. The pre-sapropelic sediments at the basal section of the cores reflect the lake stage of the Marmara Sea when it was isolated both from the Black and Mediterranean seas. First colonization of foraminifers at about 11-10.4 ky BP indicate the beginning of marine conditions following the entry of Mediterranean waters through the Çanakkale Strait. Sapropelic sediments deposited at about 10.3-6.2 ky BP were associated with enhanced productivity of the surface waters, as inferred from the confined abundance of Globigerina bulloides in sapropelic zones. The first stage of the sapropelic deposition started under anoxic-close to anoxic bottom water conditions and continued in dysoxic-suboxic conditions, as deduced from benthic foraminiferal assemblages. Towards the end of the sapropelic deposition, suboxic conditions dominated. The most enriched d18O values occur within the sapropelic sediments suggesting that a relative freshening of the surface water must have occurred after deposition of the sapropelic sediments; this observation casts doubt on the postulated strong Black Sea outflow during their formation. Post-sapropelic sediments deposited during the last 6 ky BP have been divided into three intervals by distinct distribution patterns of foraminiferal fauna, possibly indicating relative changes in the Marmara Sea during the Late Holocene. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages in these intervals show that suboxic bottom conditions continued from the last stage of the sapropelic deposition up to the present day.
Key Words: benthic foraminifera, planktic foraminifera, biostratigraphy, sapropel, stable isotopes, palaeoceanography, last glacial-Holocene, Marmara Sea
Turkish J. Earth Sci., 17, (2008), 129-168.
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Other articles published in the same issue: Turkish J. Earth Sci.,vol.17,iss.1.